What is Corporate Law?

A corporation is a legal entity that exists to conduct business. Corporate law is a branch of law within the scope of commercial law that examines the legal relations regarding the establishment, merger, division, transfer and liquidation of corporations. Corporate law is civil law. Corporate law maning is the law that examines the legal rules related to corporations. It is also called business law.

Areas of Corporate Law

The areas of corporate law are wide. Some of the areas are;

  • Incorporation of companies,

  • Articles of association,

  • Directors’ and shareholders’ rights,

  • Board meetings,

  • Shares,

  • Ordinary and extraordinary general assembly meetings,

  • Company internal directives,

  • Capital increase and capital reduction,

  • Mergers and acquisitions.

Types of Companies in Turkey

Companies are part of business law and commercial law too. The types of companies are joint stock company, limited liability company, limited liability company, collective company and cooperative in Turkey. These companies are regulated in the Turkish Commercial Code. In addition, ordinary partnerships are regulated in the Turkish Code of Obligations. The most common of these are joint stock companies and limited liability companies.

Joint Stock Company

A joint stock company is a company whose capital is determined and divided into shares, and which is liable for its debts only with its assets. Joint stock companies can be established for all kinds of economic purposes and subjects that are not prohibited by law. The joint stock company has a written and registered articles of association in the trade registry where its head office is located.

Shareholders are liable to the company only with the capital shares they have committed. Joint stock companies are the only type of companies whose shares can be offered to the public and whose shares can be traded on the stock exchange. The minimum capital amount is 50,000 Turkish Liras. The joint stock company has two organs. These are the general assembly and the board of directors. The full equivalent of corporation in America and Canada is joint stock company in our country. It is very similar to the public limited company in the UK.

Limited Liability Company

A limited liability company is a company whose capital is fixed and divided into shares, and which is liable for its debts only with its assets. Limited companies cannot be offered to the public. A single partner limited company can be established. The number of partners cannot exceed fifty.

The basic capital of the limited company is at least 10,000 Turkish Liras. The partners are not responsible for the debts of the company, they are only obliged to pay the basic capital shares they have committed and to fulfill the additional payment and ancillary performance obligations stipulated in the company contract. The partners are responsible for the public debts that cannot be collected from the company in proportion to their capital shares. The two organs of the limited company are the general assembly and the board of directors.

It is very similar to the Limited Liability Company in the United States and the Private Limited Company in the United Kingdom.

Company Establishment in Turkey

Company establishment in Turkey takes place by submitting the necessary documents to the relevant trade registry directorate. Foreign real and legal persons are subject to the same rules as domestic investors in establishing a company in Turkey. Upon the application of the founders to the registry office with the relevant documents, the trade registry office completes the registration process. It is possible to carry out incorporation procedures through a corporate law attorney authorized by a power of attorney.

Corporate Law Legal Service of BAL Law Firm

BAL Law Firm provides services in the preparation of the company’s articles of association and the establishment of the company. We provide services in the field of corporate and commercial law.

Our corporate law attorneys, who are experts in their fields, provide consultancy services and corporate advisory law on all kinds of issues related to your company. We will guide you in your best interest according to new laws and corporate law news.

Our corporate law office provide consultancy services to companies about the transfer of shares, amendment of the articles of association, general assembly resolutions, audit and all kinds of corporate law issues.